Work-family benefits: Which ones maximize profits? national Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 18, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2012-en, Ongera, M. R., & Juma, D. (2015). According to the two research questions in this, ven and employer-driven arrangements. so confirmed by our study) and absenteeism is not new (e.g. An approach to ordering information within ill-structured problem environments is based on approximate matrix representations of management objectives and the properties of performance measure instruments. A total of 171 organiza-. Telework, employee assistance programs, and health and wellness programs were significant at the .10 level. : flexible work hours, compressed work week, remote/mobile work). employees deliver, and 2) performance measure properties directly impact both effort and the selection functioning of incentive contracts. Flexible Work Arrangements June 2019 . This allows them to achieve better work and home life balance. The questionnaire consists of 6 parts and measures, numerous HRM indicators. ment: Evidence from two empirical studies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the research, that acknowledges the fact that certain FWAs are introduced, to lower costs (employer-driven), while others are aimed at, reducing work-life conflict (employee-driven), as well as to, explore the different effects of these bundles of FW. those that primarily benefit employees were found, to be positively related to several organizational outcomes, while employer-driven arrangements were almost exclusive-. This study aims to see satisfaction level of employee when WFH and their self-rated of their job effectiveness. Stavrou (2005) and Berkery et al. (see, for example, Lewis, 2003; Kotey & Sharma, 2016). Robust design is a methodology for improving the quality of a product or process by minimizing the effect of variations in the inputs without eliminating the causes of those variations. be positively related to a certain organizational outcome, the analysis of global competitiveness measures, i.e. They are considered a staple of the European labour market and are becoming more widespread in the United States and Asia.3 “In 1967, flexi-time was introduced in West Germany to alleviate commuting problems. The impacts of the work–life balance arrangement on organisational performance is a growing concern amongst researchers and practitioners. More precisely, ployees are left with little choice over their working time and, location, employees as a result may feel less committed to the, organization and less compelled to give back to the organiza-, The contribution of this study is twofold; first, presenting evi-, dence from a large sample, this study advances knowledge in, the field by empirically testing the relationship between FWA, practices and different organizational performance indicators, ments i.e. Therefore, this leads to the, RQ1: Do employee-driven FWAs have an effect on orga-, nizational performance, and if so, do they have a signifi-, cant association with non-financial performance indica-. financial performance is measured by return on assets (ROA), Results of the empirical research are divided into two sec-, tions, as explained by research questions. https://doi.org/10.2307/1556339, (1), 40–58. In addition, we will test whether a differentiated approach to work design and related job interventions contribute to innovative work behaviour and work performance of today’s increasingly diversified workforce. The empirical evidence shows that financial incentives have the potential to exert strong effects on indicators of firm performance, such as productivity and worker absenteeism, although the degree of effectiveness of such schemes varies significantly according to the institutional/economic context in which firms operate. association with organizational performance was found, (Stavrou, 2005; Stavrou & Kilaniotis, 2010). 2.5 Ad hoc arrangements . A Meta-Analysis, Work–Life Balance, Organizations and Social Sustainability: Analyzing Female Telework in Spain, THE IMPACT OF FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS ON EMPLOYEE RETENTION IN MALAYSIA'S ADVERTISING, MARKETING & PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY, Belajar dari Covid-19: Perspektif Teknologi dan Pertanian, Is your Work from Home Job satisfying? In our study we answer this call by exploring the gap in, the research of potential effects of various types of FWAs clas-, on firm performance by using objective and subjective mea-, sures of performance. Flexible Work Arrangements should be implemented in a fair and equitable manner throughout the University, which may result in differing arrangements depending on job responsibilities, service obligations and departmental needs. Due to high engagement level of employees in their work, team performance increases. non-financial performance, measured by labor turnover and absenteeism, and financial, nancial performance is usually measured by turnover and ab-, average number of days employees are absent from work in, tionalized through the year's percentage of staff leaving the, conducted in order to analyze the shape of distribution and, mance were divided into two groups – global competitive-, ness and individual company performance. When COVID-19 cases started to increase, many private sectors in Indonesia implemented either full WFH or alternate office-based and WFH method. Good and challenging working practices directly enhance employees’, Using data from a third-party survey on compensation practices at 151 Dutch firms, we show that less noisy or distorted performance measures and higher cash bonuses are associated with better-directed effort and improved employee selection. PDF | On Oct 15, 2020, Joshua E. Bienstock and others published The Flexible Work Arrangements in a Post Covid-19 Universe. petitiveness: A cross-national study of the European work context. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2009.00659.x. While acknowledging the fact that this type of employment, arrangement can generate benefits for the employer, -term contracting almost certainly results in lower employee, ees can be quite high, a lot of time and resources are spent on, training new employees, which almost certainly raises costs, and reduces competitiveness (e.g. Even though efficiency and competitiveness are two major, factors that influence management's decision to use FWAs, (Kotey & Sharma, 2016) our research reveals that FW, even be detrimental, especially if not voluntary or freely cho-, sen by employees (Lewis, 2003). Most of private sectors have shifted from officed based to work from home (WFH). According to the principal‐agent paradigm, firms (the principal) have to link employees' remuneration schemes to any verifiable indicator of performance to avoid opportunistic behavior. All content in this area was uploaded by Maja Klindzic on Feb 26, 2019, Faculty of Economics and Business, Zagreb, Maja Klindžić, Faculty of Economics and Business, University, Human resource management (HRM) has been recognized as, (Becker & Gerhart, 1996) and is not losing in popularity due, to the fact that its practices can stimulate firm performance, ticularly significant in increasingly hypercompetitive markets. the employers' perspective. Furthermore, 4 years of panel data were obtained from the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey and FedScope to test the hypotheses. In the first part we, analyzed the distribution of FWAs with regard to non-finan-, whether differences in company organizational performance, measured by both subjective and objective financial indica-, speaking, the descriptive analysis revealed that out of 12 ob-, served FWA practices, the top four in terms of incidence were, mostly those employer-driven i.e., fixed-term contracts, shift, work, overtime work and weekend work (present in approx-, imately or more than 75% of the companies). descriptions of instrument properties upon which value functions are assessed. International Labour Organization (2011). Working remotely has been favoured by various countries in the world and has become a common way of performing work activities. Flexible working arrangements can be used by supervisors to provide UGA departments and employees the … The idea is that, without options for flexibility at the workplace, employees, will try to improve their work-life balance by reducing the, amount of work and/or reporting they are sick even when, sequences (e.g. Flexible work arrangements are changes to an employee’s terms and conditions of employment. An online survey link was provided to respondents who were working from home in selected African countries. Hence, our results indicate that work engagement of employees enhances by initiating flexibility in working hours and by empowering the employees psychologically in an organization. More than half of the respondents also rated that WFH was effective. What is interesting about these examples is that the transformations they propose are regarded as strategic and crucial in guaranteeing the very survival of the companies in question, increasing their ability to attract and retain talent, boosting productivity and, in short, sharpening their competitive edge . In conclusion, it seems that a clear link between specific, forms of FWAs and organizational performance does exist but, there is more room for contribution in the academic litera-, ture. When the outbreak become progressing one of the many changes is the request to work from home. Normal-, ity tests were performed for all three dimensions of global, competitiveness and revealed non-normality in the distribu-, mance indicators were obtained through the Croatian data-, base of financial reports (RGFI) and are considered indepen-, profit and loss accounts published for years 2012–2015 were, obtained through desk-research and analyzed for the majori-, ty of for-profit companies in the sample. Kleinknecht, A., Oostendorp, R. M., Pradhan, M. P, https://doi.org/10.1080/02692170600581102, Working long hours: A review of the evidence, Konrad, A. M., & Mangel, R. (2000). Certain steps were taken, however, minimize the effects of single-method bias: respondents were, guaranteed anonymity to increase the accuracy of the res-, ponses; criterion measures were placed in different sections, of the questionnaire from predictor variables; the expertise of, our respondents could be deemed unquestionable, as they. A methodology for the evaluation of performance measures in organizations having interdependent activities and components is provided. Such a relationship, where employers motivate their employees to work in accor-, dance with the organizations' plans is a typical example of, exchange described in the social exchange theory, FWAs help employees manage their work-life balance and re-, duce levels of stress, exhaustion, burnout etc. For more information on the CRANET. Symbolic action and resource-based views provide conceptual support for such a relationship. Additionally, we propose the notion of “life sustainability” to analyze how female teleworkers describe the link between specific work cultures and the possibility of fulfilling social sustainability goals in local work environments through the achievement of a good work–life balance. --Regis University, Denver, 1997. The implications the results have for theory and practice are discussed in the article. We review the literature on alternative work arrangements published since the most recent major review of nonstandard work by Ashford et al. home-, -sufficient, self-disciplined, well-organized and good commu-, nicators, they will tend to generate higher performance for, those firms which can offer such flexibility as a means to cap-, ture and retain them (Huws, Korte & Robinson 1990, after, Stavrou, 2005). The homonymous FCA Composite Index (CI) is calculated for all 200 NUTS II-level regions of France, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Bulgaria and Romania. ment provision in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The email correspondence must Results from a national sample of 527 U.S. firms suggest that organizations with more extensive work-family policies have higher perceived firm-level performance. It is a cooperative effort between the staff member and manager and must consider both the operational needs of the unit and the personal needs of the request. Second, organizational performance measures used in this study do, not come from a single source and, additionally, tive and objective, as well as financial and non-financial mea-, sures were used. (2017) suggest that organizations that use FWAs will benefit, from both lower levels of absenteeism and turnover, ployees perceive employers who offer FWAs as attentive to, their well-being, and in turn they gain motivation to be more, committed to them, which could eventually lead to reduced, Masuda, and Nicklin (2010) confirm in their studies that the, availability of FWAs decreases employee turnover, Besides non-financial measures of organizational perfor-, investment (Baltes et al., 1999; Stavrou, 2005; de Menezes &, tices that increase workforce flexibility may boost productivi-, ty and innovativeness, and ultimately could lead to increased, financial performance, which can manifest itself as increased, was supported by 44% of them (de Menezes & Kelliher, Shepard III, Clifton, and Kruse (1996) argue that FWAs could, have an impact on productivity due to increased effort, better, cooperation and the ability to attract talented workers that, prefer flexible work schedules, but due to more changes in, the schedule it is also possible that the costs of supervisors, will increase. Of the six perspectives, only career motivation, employee attendance, employee recruitment, and employee retention were significantly associated with the work–life balance arrangement. Using Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm we identified four distinct bundles of FWAs based on the uptake of twelve individual FWAs across the sample of organizations. sampling and snowball technique was adopted to gather valid information on the use of In light of these considerations, this study uses a sample of Italian firms to provide further empirical evidence on whether and to what extent performance‐related pay schemes and contract flexibility affect workers' effort (in terms of absenteeism) and, in turn, firm productivity. Our research findings will provide concrete solutions as planned work design interventions within state-owned enterprises will demystify the innovation process and foster innovation in the public workplace. Baltes et al. to reduce working hours and especially unproductive time at. As Berkery et al. Flexible work arrangements, known as flextime, refers to work environment and schedules that don't have normal constraints of a traditional job. Mental Health Commission of New South Wales Policy Number: 009 Flexible Work Practices TD15/1923 2 Policy Details 1. (https://learn.som.cranfield.ac.uk/cranet). competitors where two employee-driven practices existed, Interestingly enough, objective indicators of company, performance generated fewer statistically significant differ-, ences than the formerly explained subjective measures, all re-, in return on assets (ROA) in 2014 relative to 2013 was statisti-, cally significantly different only in the case of fixed-term con-, tracts, where it was revealed that companies that do not ap-, ployee, higher revenues per employee were found again in, companies that apply neither shift-work (, to organizational performance, we came to several important, conclusions. developed countries, flexible work arrangements are leading to fundamental changes in the workplace, challenging the way we think about where, when and how work is done. The data on 12 different FWAs practices was collected in 171 large-sized Croatian organizations by a questionnaire survey using CRANET methodology. We close with future directions for research and practice for tending to the first image and moving away from the second image of the new world of work. This study also contribute WFH practice. portance of time and place flexibility (Meyer et al., 2001). The Code provides other rights and protections that help employees achieve work life balance, such as: existing and new leaves; Even though it should be emphasized that some of, these practices are mostly inherent to manufacturing compa-, ing for shiftwork but also making fixed-term contracts even-, tually convertible to permanent contracts after the probation, period have been found helpful (see Battisti & V. In general, to enhance organizational competitiveness, companies need to implement flexible staffing strategies that, create a mix of employees able to contribute their maximum, to better manage their non-work lives can be considered, strategic and should be added to the list of the "best practices", match both employers' and employees' needs and thus im-, prove employee quality of life and strengthen organizational, Research limitations and recommendations for future research, First, the study relies on self-report data in the sense that one, manager provided data for the company he/she works in. Flexible working arrangements. De Cuyper et al., 2011; Ongera & Juma, 2015). with human resource and organizational performance outcomes. The focus of this paper is on outcomes of different FWAs, performance. 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